Ohio Alliance for Arts Education
Arts on Line Education Update
May 11, 2015
CELEBRATE ARTS DAY MAY 13, 2015!
This Wednesday, May 13, 2015 advocates for the arts will come together in Columbus to celebrate the 2015 Governor’s Awards for the Arts.
Receiving awards this year are:
-Individual Artist: James Pate, Dayton
-Community Development and Participation: Mayor Thomas Johnson, Somerset
-Business Support of the Arts: Morris Furniture Company, Fairborn
-Arts Patron: Barbara Hunzicker, Lancaster
-Arts Education: Dr. Philip Brady, Youngstown
-Arts Administration: Marie Bollinger Vogt, Sylvania
The awards will be presented at a noon luncheon at the Columbus Athenaeum, hosted by the Ohio Arts Council and the Ohio Citizens for the Arts Foundation. The event honors recipients and members of the Ohio General Assembly. Award recipients will receive an original work of art by Nicole Schneider, a print maker and mixed-media artist from Cleveland.
In addition to the awards luncheon, Arts Day also includes student performances, opportunities to visit members of the General Assembly, and opportunities to network with other arts advocates. An agenda for Arts Day activities is available on the Ohio Arts Council’s web site at http://oac.state.oh.us/events/GovAwards/Default.asp.
1) Ohio News
- 131st Ohio General Assembly: The Ohio House and Senate will hold hearings and sessions this week.
Last week the House Education Committee, chaired by Representative Hayes, reported HB70 (Driehaus/Brenner) Community Learning Centers. The bill would authorize school districts and community schools to initiate a community learning center process to assist and guide school restructuring.
This week the House Education Committee, chaired by Representative Hayes, will meet on May 12, 2015 at 9:00 AM in hearing room 017. The committee will receive testimony on
HB113 (Grossman/Manning) CPR-Graduation Requirement and HB174 (Barnes) Graduation Degree Entrepreneurial Skills.
The Senate Finance Education Subcommittee, chaired by Senator Hite, will meet on May 13, 2015, at 2:30 PM or after session in the North Hearing Room. The committee will continue to receive testimony on HB64 (Smith) Biennial Budget.
- Most School Tax Issues Approved: Ohio voters approved 85 out of 101 school tax issues on the May 5, 2015 ballot, including 95 percent of renewal issues and 63 percent of new tax issues. The overall rate of passage (84 percent) was also higher than in May 2014 — 69 percent. Voters also approved all 12 library issues.
2) National News
- Ohio Districts Awarded U.S. DOE Grants: Four school districts in Ohio will receive Elementary and Secondary School Counseling Grants as part of a $24 million program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. The grants can be used to hire qualified mental-health professionals to expand the range, availability, quantity, and quality of counseling services in schools. Counseling programs have been shown to “reduce the number of disciplinary referrals in schools, improve student attendance and academic performance, and enhance development of social skills.”
Receiving the grants in Ohio are Crestwood Local Schools, Danville Local Schools, Steubenville City Schools, and Cardington Local Schools.
See “U.S. Department of Education Awards More Than $24.8 Million in Elementary and Secondary School Counseling Grants: 67 School Districts in 26 States to Receive Grants for School Counselors and Mental Health Services”, U.S. DOE, May 6, 2015 at http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/us-department-education-awards-more-248-million-elementary-and-secondary-school-counseling-grants
- Congratulations Presidential Scholars!: Each year up to 141 students are named as Presidential Scholars, one of the nation’s highest honors for high school students. The program was established in 1964 to recognize distinguished graduating high school seniors, and in 1979 was expanded to recognize students who demonstrate exceptional talent in the visual, creative and performing arts. The scholars are nominated by chief state school officers or the National YoungArts Foundation, and are selected based on their academic achievement, artistic achievement, essays, school evaluations and transcripts, community service, leadership, and demonstrated commitment to high ideals.
U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan announced the 51st class of U.S. Presidential Scholars on May 4, 2015. The scholars from Ohio are Linda Qin of Dublin Jerome High School in Dublin; Oonagh B. Davis of Interlochen Arts Academy in Harrison, who is a Presidential Scholar of the Arts; and Jaydeep Singh of Lancaster High School in Lancaster.
The 2015 recognition ceremony will be held June 21, 2015 at the White House, and there recipients will receive a Presidential Scholar Medallion.
- National Program Recognizes Schools of Opportunity: Professor Kevin Welner, director of the National Education Policy Center (NEPC) at the University of Colorado, and Carol Buris, principal of South Side High School in Rockville Centre, New York, announced on May 7, 2015 that 17 high schools in New York and Colorado had been selected to receive the “School of Opportunity” designation. This is the first year that the designation has been awarded as part of the Schools of Opportunity project, funded by the Ford Foundation and the NEA Foundation. The project recognizes high schools that demonstrate practices designed to expand student opportunity and access to academic success. The project was piloted in Colorado and New York in 2014-15, and will expand nationwide next year.
Unlike other school rating initiatives, the Schools of Opportunity project recognizes schools that meet specific practices outlined in Closing the Opportunity Gap, which was edited by Kevin Welner and Stanford University Professor Prudence Carter. The practices include effective student and faculty support systems, outreach to the community, health and psychological support, judicious and fair discipline policies, little or no tracking, and high-quality teacher induction and mentoring programs. The selection criteria requires that the school’s curriculum include a range of subjects, activities and experiences to meet the personal educational needs of the students, and include social studies, science, art, music, and physical education throughout the school year.
The selected schools applied for the designation, and participated in a rigorous screening process and a site visit from evaluators. The selected schools range in student-body size and include schools in rural, urban, and suburban settings.
Recognized schools received either a Gold or Silver designation.
The Gold “Schools of Opportunity” in 2015 are, in alphabetical order:
Centaurus High School, Lafayette, Colorado
Fannie Lou Hamer Freedom High School, Bronx, New York
Grand Valley High School, Garfield, Colorado
Jefferson County Open High School, Lakewood, Colorado
Malverne High School, Malverne, New York
The 12 high schools that earned Silver Schools of Opportunity designation in 2015 are:
Center High School, Center, Colorado
Charles D’Amico High School, Albion, New York
Durango High School, Durango, Colorado
Eastridge High School, Rochester, New York
Elwood – John H. Glenn High School, Elwood, New York
Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York
Long Beach High School, Long Beach, New York
Long View High School, Lakewood, Colorado
Mapleton Early College High School, Thornton, Colorado
Harrison High School, Harrison, New York
Sleepy Hollow High School, Sleepy Hollow, New York
Sunset Park High School, Brooklyn, New York
3) State Board of Education to Meet: The State Board of Education, Tom Gunlock president, will meet on May 11-12, 2015 at the Ohio Department of Education Conference Center, 25 South Front Street, Columbus, OH.
A Chapter 119 Hearing will be held at 8:30 AM on May 11, 2015 in room B001 on Rules 3301-32-01 to -12, School Child Program 3301-35-15, Restraint & Seclusion. Following the hearing the Achievement & Graduation Requirements Committee, chaired by C. Todd Jones, will meet and discuss score setting for Job Skills Assessment; graduation requirements for students with disabilities; updated physical education standards; honors diploma options; test retake guidelines; and receive an update about assessments.
The Urban & Rural Renewal and Accountability committees will meet concurrently immediately following the Achievement Committee. The Accountability Committee, chaired by Mark Smith, will discuss combining component grades into an overall grade; discuss the prepared for success component; and discuss high school value-added. The Board will then recess for lunch and resume the meeting at 1:00 PM.
In the afternoon the Board will receive the report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, which will include an update on competency and innovative waivers and an overview of professional conduct.
The State Board’s business meeting will follow with public participation on agenda and non-agenda Items and a review of written reports and items for vote. The Board will then hold an executive session and recess for the day.
On Tuesday, May 12, 2015 the State Board’s Legislative and Budget Committee Meeting will meet at 8:30 AM to discuss pending state and federal legislation. Following a presentation about robotics by Ohio First, the Board will convene its business meeting; receive committee reports; and vote on the Report and Recommendations of the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
The Board will take action on the following resolutions on May 12, 2015:
#5 Approve a Resolution of Intent to Rescind Rules 3301-56-01 of the Ohio Administrative Code Entitled School District and Building Improvement Planning, Parent Notification, and Intervention and to Adopt Proposed New Rule 3301-56-01.
#5A Approve a Resolution of Intent to consider confirmation of the Johnstown-Monroe Local School District’s determination of impractical transportation of certain students attending Blessed Sacrament School, Newark, Licking County, Ohio.
#5B Approve a Resolution of Intent to consider confirmation of the Johnstown-Monroe Local School District’s determination of impractical transportation of certain students attending Granville Christian Academy, Granville, Licking County, Ohio.
#5C Approve a Resolution of Intent to consider confirmation of the Johnstown-Monroe Local School District’s determination of impractical transportation of certain students attending St. Francis DeSales School, Newark, Licking County, Ohio.
#6 Approve a Resolution to confirm and approve the recommendation of the hearing officer and to approve the transfer of school district territory from the South-Western School District, Franklin County, to the Upper Arlington City School District, Franklin County Pursuant to Section 3311.24 of the Ohio Revised Code.
#16 Approve a Resolution to Confirm the Columbus Grove Local School District Board of Education’s Determination of Impractical Transportation of Certain Children Attending XXXXX, Ohio.
#17 Approve a Resolution of Appointment to the Educator Standards Board.
#18 Approve a Resolution to Report on Implementation of Instruction in Financial Literacy.
4) States Report a Lack of Capacity to Improve Schools: The U.S. Department of Education (DOE), Institute of Education Sciences released on May 6, 2015 an evaluation brief on the capacity of states to improve low performing schools through School Improvement Grants (SIG) and the Race to the Top (RTT) grant program.
This brief is part of a large-scale evaluation being conducted by the U.S. DOE of RTT and SIG “to better understand the implementation impacts of these programs.”
This particular evaluation focuses on state capacity to improve low-performing schools, including funding, staff, technology, staff expertise, and the ability to identify and leverage expertise. The evaluation is based on interviews with administrators from 49 states and the District of Columbia in the spring of 2012 and the spring of 2013. Texas did not participate in the interviews.
According to the brief, policy makers and education leaders have identified as a priority improving our nation’s low-performing schools. “Nearly half of the nation’s public schools (48 percent) did not make adequate yearly progress in 2011 and half of the nation’s high school dropouts come from about 15 percent of high schools. Unfortunately, there are few examples to date of such low-performing schools producing substantial and sustained achievement gains.”
As a result of this priority, substantial investments have been made through School Improvement Grants (SIG) and Race to the Top (RTT) grants. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $3 billion for SIG and $5.1 billion was distributed to states through RTT between 2009-11, including $4.4 billion from ARRA.
According to the evaluation brief, the researchers found that 84 percent of states in 2012 and 82 percent in 2013 made improving low-performing schools a high priority. A majority of states also reported that improving low performing schools was difficult to do in 2012 (58 percent), and in 2013 (50 percent).
The report goes on to say, “Several scenarios may explain why most states found turnaround so difficult. Because research on effective strategies for sustaining turnaround in low-performing schools is limited, states may be uncertain how to pursue this goal. Moreover, turning around a school with a history of low performance is complex and challenging. Studies have shown that low-performing schools are rarely able to produce substantial and sustained achievement gains, and case studies have documented numerous obstacles to turnaround efforts.”
The researchers also found that 38 states (76 percent) reported significant gaps in expertise for supporting school turnaround in 2012, and that number increased to 40 (80 percent) in 2013. States reported gaps in expertise specifically in the areas of teacher evaluations (21 states) and recruiting effective staffs (25 states in 2013).
More than 85 percent of states reported using strategies to enhance their capacity to support school turnaround, including organizational or administrative structures, and the use of intermediaries, such as regional branches of state education departments, institutions of higher education, distinguished educators, or contractors or consultants.
States reported that the use of intermediaries decreased over time, and the use of organizational or administrative structures increased over time.
See “State Capacity to Support School Turnaround” by U.S. DOE, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, May 2015 at http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20154012/pdf/20154012.pdf
5) Education Organizations Testify on HB64: The Senate Finance Education Committee, chaired by Senator Hite, continued hearings on Sub. HB64 (Smith) Biennial Budget on May 6, 2015 and May 7, 2015. Among the witnesses were representatives of the major state education organizations, unions, and think tanks. The following are some highlights of the testimony, which is available at http://www.ohiosenate.gov/committee/finance-education-subcommittee#
Ohio Education Policy Institute
Howard Fleeter presented an overview of past state school funding formulas; explained how the current formula was developed; provided an analysis of the components of the Executive and House formulas included in Sub. HB64; and then compared how the formulas worked for the seven types of school districts: poor rural; rural; small town; poor small town; suburban; wealthy suburban; urban; and major urban school districts.
While comparing the school funding components of the Executive and House versions of Sub. HB64, Dr. Fleeter said that at a conceptual level, “the House funding formula addresses many of the most commonly mentioned issues with regard to Ohio school funding.” He then went on to explain that the House formula uses total valuation for the state share, which is “more stable over time than using valuation per pupil because each district’s state share depends only on its own valuation change over time.”
The income adjustment in the House proposed formula is simpler than the Executive version and “more rationale than the current income adjustment.”
The House also uses a 6 year average for current agriculture use valuation (CAUV), which might provide some relief for districts with lots of agricultural property, which has been increasing more in value compared to property in urban and suburban districts.
To determine school district local contribution, the current formula uses the state share index (SSI) based on per pupil property wealth and relative median income wealth for some districts. According to Dr. Fleeter, SSI is less stable, lacks transparency, and the income factor is “seriously flawed”, because so many of the districts that receive the income adjustment are districts with higher than average median income levels.
The Executive proposal modifies the SSI to better adjust the formula for income wealth, but makes the formula even more complicated.
The House plan restores a 20 mill charge off on total property valuation to determine an unadjusted local contribution. This change restores some stability to the funding formula, because it is based on a district’s own valuation, rather than how valuation changes in comparison to all other districts, which is how the current SSI works.
The House also adjusts the valuation of a district for income wealth using the district’s median income compared to the statewide median income, providing more stability for school districts, and transparency in the formula.
Stephen Dyer told the committee that the state school funding proposal in the House version of Sub. HB64 is “extraordinarily inefficient,” because funding is distributed through caps and guarantees rather than through a fair formula. He went on to explain, “Until there’s an adequate formula, we will continue to need guarantees and caps. That’s because if the formula doesn’t work right, we will be fighting over a fair distribution of inadequate resources.”
He asked the committee to consider the purpose of the school funding formula and whether or not the spending plans proposed by the House and Executive bear any relation to the cost of operating a school. For example, the cost per pupil in both the Executive and House proposals, $5,900 in FY16 and $6,000 in FY17, is not based on any actual data about the cost to educate children in the 21st Century.
He recommended that the state engage in a process to determine an adequate cost per pupil and other categories of state aid, and then commit to fully funding the formula. The Evidence-Based Model enacted during Governor Strickland’s administration, for example, identified specific costs for each education component per grade band to determine school district state aid. The formula was never fully phased-in because of the recession and the lack of adequate funds, and was later repealed under Governor Kasich.
As to other components of the Executive and House state aid formula, Mr. Dyer supports using the 20 mill charge off; using factors in addition to income to determine a local district’s capacity; providing additional revenue based on the amount a district can raise on a mill; and establishing the School Funding Advisory Council.
Mr. Dyer also commented on the changes being proposed for charter schools. He opposes the $25 per pupil for e-school facilities, saying that charter schools are already receiving $200 more through the proposed increase in the per pupil amount.
He also recommended that lawmakers change the way state aid is distributed to charter schools. Charter schools receive state aid now as a deduction from school district state aid. This method forces school districts to “backfill” deducted state aid with local revenue, because charter schools receive the full state aid per pupil and categorical funding for each student, while school districts only receive a portion of the state aid per pupil and categorical funding. That is because state aid for school districts is adjusted for wealth.
He recommended that the state determine the state aid per pupil for charter schools based on the cost of their education programs. According to the testimony, charter schools pay teachers less, do not pay for busing, and do not have to comply with the same laws and standards as traditional public schools, so the amount of state aid per pupil for charters should reflect their costs, rather than the cost for traditional school districts.
Testimony from BASA, OASBO, and OSBA
A theme throughout the testimony on Sub. HB64 presented by the Buckeye Association of School Administrators (BASA), the Ohio Association of School Business Officials (OASBO), and the Ohio School Boards Association (OSBA), was the need for the state to determine whether or not school districts have the necessary resources to serve students.
Barbara Shaner from OASBO told the committee that the current school funding formula and the Executive proposal in HB64 “fall short” in meeting the educational needs of all students, and result in “…a wide range of educational opportunities available among the districts across the state.”
The organizations support the House proposal because it improves on the current school funding framework in very significant ways, “thereby helping more low capacity and rural districts than the current school funding formula and the proposal under the Governor’s plan.”
Tom Ash from BASA reviewed for the committee proposals to address transitional aid, the phase-out of tangible personal property tax (TPP) and public utility tangible personal property tax reimbursements (PUTPP), and use of the balance reserve and forecasting.
He said that some districts still rely heavily on TPP and PUTPP replacement funds, which were “originally intended to phase out over time as the state school funding formula accounted for the loss (increased formula aid to replace the TPP loss).” But this did not happen because of the downturn in the economy, and these districts have not been made whole. The organizations support the plan in the House version of HB64 to ensure that no school district receives less state aid than in FY15.
Damon Asbury asked the committee to restore per pupil funding for Educational Service Centers to previous levels, and made several recommendations regarding state funding for transportation. He told the committee that the formula for transportation should
-provide state funds to purchase buses
-compensate school districts for transporting students to private and community schools
-include adjustments for rural districts with low density, and districts with low wealth and low density
-operate independently from the state aid formula, and not be subject to the guarantees or caps.
Mr. Asbury also said that the three organizations oppose the HB64 provision that would allow exemplary community school sponsors to partner with a resident school district to receive funding from a local tax levy, even with the approval of a board of education.
Ohio Education Association
In addition to supporting the school funding formula changes in the House version of Sub. HB 64, Becky Higgins, president of the Ohio Education Association, asked the Senate Finance Education Subcommittee to find a different way to fund charter schools than the current “pass through” system.
For the 2014-15 school year local school districts are subsidizing approximately $250 million of the nearly $1 billion transferred from public schools to charter schools.
According to her testimony, “Approximately 40 school districts must subsidize over $1 million in charter school payments, with many others nearing that amount. These are urban, suburban and rural districts that span the state. Further, under the funding formula, many school districts that are shown to receive increases over the biennium may actually receive decreases when charter school deductions are taken into account.”
Charter schools could be funded directly from the state, or funds for charter schools could be limited to a district’s state aid per pupil amount, rather than the full per pupil amount, which is what they receive now.
Ohio Federation of Teachers
Darold Johnson testified for Melissa Cropper, president of the Ohio Federation of Teachers. He requested that the committee address provisions regarding charter schools, teacher evaluations, exemptions for high performing school district, and testing in separate bills rather than through the budget bill, Sub. HB64, so that there is more time for in depth review. The House removed some of these provisions, but the provision about exemptions for high performing schools is still in Sub. HB64.
He also testified that the OFT opposes budget language that would allow charter schools to seek levy dollars, and recommends more oversight of charter school management companies; require charter schools to comply with laws regarding open meetings; and repeal the requirement that school districts transport charter school students who live within two miles of their charter school.
6) Bills Introduced
HB183 (Antani/Stinziano) Student Trustee-Voting Authority: Grants student members of the boards of trustees of state universities and the Northeast Ohio Medical University voting power and the authority to attend executive sessions.
HB184 (Dovilla/Antonio) Music Therapy Licensing: To require the licensure of music therapists and to require the State Medical Board to regulate the licensure and practice of music therapists.
HB189 (Brenner) Voter Identification: To revise the law concerning the identification an elector must provide in order to cast absent voter’s ballots, to vote in person at a polling place, or to cast a provisional ballot.
HB192 (Rogers/Perales) Safety Enhancement Standards: To require the State Board of Education to adopt rules prescribing standards for safety enhancements to new public and nonpublic school facilities, and to require the Ohio School Facilities Commission to revise its construction and design standards to comply with the State Board’s standards.
- Event to Raise Support for Music Education: Education Week reports that Facebook’s headquarters in San Francisco will host the Little Kids Rock Family Jam charity event on May 16, 2015 to raise money to support adding pop and rock music to the curriculum in more schools. According to the article, the LIttle Kids Rock charity, based in Verona, New Jersey, has been working with schools in more than 29 cities to promote its “modern band” curriculum, which has been adopted by the school districts of New York City, Los Angeles, Dallas, Chicago, and Hartford.
See “Charity Event Will Support ‘Modern’ Music Education Programs” by Jessica Brown, Education Week, May 7, 2015 at
- Cursive Writing to be Taught in Art Class: The Akron Beacon Journal reports that instruction in cursive handwriting will be reinstated in the Green Local School District through the art curriculum in grades 1-3. According to the article, Kimberly Brueck, Green Local’s director of technology and secondary curriculum reported that instruction in cursive writing has been sporadic in the district, especially since cursive writing is not included in the common core state standards for English language arts. Studies have shown that cursive writing helps children develop fine motor skills, patience, and skills that children will need throughout their academic studies, such as learning to focus and paying attention to detail. Students also need to learn to read script so that they can read our nation’s important historic documents, and sign their names. Working with the district’s art teachers, a curriculum has been developed for students in first grade to learn to write their names, followed by learning to write lower case letters in second grade, and upper case letters in third grade. Other classroom teachers will support cursive writing through classroom assignments.
See “Green schools to reintroduce cursive writing as part of curriculum”
by George W. Davis, Special to the Beacon Journal at http://www.ohio.com/news/break-news/green-schools-to-reintroduce-cursive-writing-as-part-of-curriculum-1.587211
- Distinguished Educators Apply the Arts: Researchers at Michigan State University have found that finalists and winners of the national U.S. Teacher of the Year award have a lot in common, including using dance, drama, music, and visual art to teach all subjects and improve student learning. The study, conducted by Danah Henriksen and Punya Mishra, was published in the journal Teachers College of Record this month.
According to the qualitative study, the researchers found through in-depth interviews with highly accomplished teachers, that they use their unique interests and avocations to inform instruction, and often infuse the arts and music in their lesson plans across disciplines.
The purpose of the study was to identify the ways award-winning teachers infuse creativity into their classrooms. The study concludes,
“Current U.S. educational policy, with its emphasis on high-stakes testing and scripted, “teacher-proof” curricula, have impeded creativity in teaching and learning. Based on the findings of this study, suggestions for curricula include the incorporation of teachers’ unique personal creative interests in lessons, along with infusion of the arts and music across varied disciplinary content. Teacher education programs and professional development courses should include a focus on both real world cross-disciplinary lesson planning, while administrators and policy makers should support opportunities for teachers to take creative and/or intellectual risks in their work.”
See “We Teach Who We Are: Creativity in the Lives and Practices of Accompllshed Teachers” by Danah Henriksen, Punya Mishra, Teachers College Record, May 5, 2015 at http://punya.educ.msu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Henriksen-Mishra-TCRecord-inpress.pdf.
- OAC Awarded NEA Grant: The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), Jane Chu chair, announced on May 6, 2015 the recipients of 1,023 grants totaling $74.3 million through the Art Works and State and Regional Partnership grant categories. The grants are awarded to nonprofit arts organization in all 50 states and five U.S. jurisdictions. This is the second round of funds awarded in 2015 by the NEA, bringing the funding awarded to date in fiscal year 2015 to $103.47 million through 2,139 awards.
Ohio will receive over a million in NEA grants from this round of awards.
The Ohio Arts Council received the second highest NEA State and Regional Partnership award of $952,000, just behind California’s $1,089,900 award. The OAC award will support nonprofit arts groups, individual artists, and schools in Ohio.
NEA also awarded an additional 18 grants totaling $447,000 to Ohio arts organizations, centers, theaters, museums, Ohio State University, foundations, studios, performing arts organizations, and production companies.
This update is written weekly by Joan Platz, Research and Knowledge Director for the Ohio Alliance for Arts Education. The purpose of the update is to keep arts education advocates informed about issues dealing with the arts, education, policy, research, and opportunities. The distribution of this information is made possible through the generous support of the Ohio Music Education Association (www.omea-ohio.org),Ohio Art Education Association (www.oaea.org), Ohio Educational Theatre Association (www.ohedta.org); OhioDance (www.ohiodance.org), and the Ohio Alliance for Arts Education (www.oaae.net).