Ohio Alliance for Arts Education
Arts on Line Education Update
January 19, 2015
1) Ohio News
- 131st Ohio General Assembly: Ohio House Speaker Cliff Rosenberger and House Minority Leader Representative Fred Strahorn announced last week the following House committee chairs and minority leadership:
-Education: Representatives Bill Hayes, chair; Andrew Brenner, vice chair; Teresa Fedor, ranking member.
-Finance and Appropriations Representatives Ryan Smith, chair; Kirk Schuring, vice chair; Denise Driehaus, ranking member.
-Higher Education Subcommittee: Representatives Mike Duffey, chair and Dan Ramos ranking member.
-Primary and Secondary Education Subcommittee: Representatives Bob Cupp, chair, and Debbie Phillips, ranking member.
-Ways and Means: Representatives Jeff McClain, chair; Gary Scherer, vice chair; and Jack Cera, ranking member.
Speaker Rosenberger also announced the Republican members of the Joint Committee on Agency Rule Review (JCARR): Representatives Mike Duffey, chair, Bill Hayes, and Gary Scherer, and the members of the Controlling Board: Representatives Ryan Smith, chair of the House Finance and Appropriations Committee, and Jeff McClain, chair of the House Ways and Means Committee.
The Senate is expected to announce committee appointments this week.
- State Board of Education Elects Leadership: The State Board of Education held their biennial organization meeting in Columbus on January 12-13, 2015. Ohio Supreme Court Justice Judith French led the swearing-in ceremony for the newly elected and re-appointed members. The Board then elected Tom Gunlock president and Tess Elshoff vice president. Running unsuccessfully were Pat Bruns for president and Mike Collins for vice president.
- OCMC Committee Discusses “Thorough and Efficient’: Hannah News reports that the Ohio Constitutional Modernization Commission (OCMC) Committee on Education, Public Institutions and Local Government, Chad Readler chair, met on January 15, 2015 and received testimony from two individuals regarding the “thorough and efficient” clause, Section 2 Article VI of the Ohio Constitution.
The Ohio Constitutional Modernization Commission (OCMC) was established in July 2011 with the passage of 129-HB188. The OCMC is charged under Section 103.61 of the Ohio Revised Code to study the Constitution of Ohio; promote an exchange of experiences and suggestions respecting desired changes in the Constitution; consider the problems pertaining to the amendment of the Constitution; and make recommendations to the General Assembly for amendments to the Constitution.
The 32-member commission is comprised of lawmakers and members of the public, and has been meeting since 2012. Its director is Steven Hollon.
The Education, Public Institutions, & Local Government Committee, chaired by Chad Readler, has been reviewing Article VI Sections 1-6, which covers the topic of education.
At least one proposal submitted by Chad Readler would eliminate the “thorough and efficient” clause in Section 2 Article VI. The presenters at the committee meeting on January 15, 2015, Stephanie Morales, a member of the Cleveland Metropolitan School District Board of Education, and Renee Middleton, dean of the Ohio University Patton College of Education and Human Services, opposed the change, and asked the committee to retain the clause or substitute it with something to achieve the same purpose.
The committee agreed to review proposed changes to this section at their March 2015 meeting. There are four proposals to change Article VI before the committee: 1 submitted by Bill Phillis, two submitted by Charlie Wilson, and one submitted by Chad Readler. The committee has also been discussing ways to include support for preschool education in this section.
2) Governor Kasich is Sworn-in as Ohio’s 69th Governor: Chief Justice Maureen O’Connor administered the oath of office on January 12, 2015 to Governor John Kasich and Lieutenant Governor Mary Taylor.
In his inaugural speech Governor Kasich talked about “getting Ohio back on track” and charting a new course for the future.
The governor spoke about the accomplishments of his first administration, including transforming Ohio’s economic development department into JobsOhio; closing the state’s budget deficit; changing the climate regarding human services; expanding Medicaid; and implementing anti-drug programs, Employment First, and Community Connectors.
But, he also said that there has been an “erosion of basic values” including personal responsibility, resilience, empathy, teamwork, family, and faith, and urged Ohioans to come together to restore those values. He asked Ohioans what they were doing to build a stronger community and a stronger Ohio, and pledged that he would work to help people reach their potential, protect freedoms, and tear down barriers,
The goal of this administration will be to ensure that all people in Ohio, “…share in the economic prosperity, particularly those people who are part of our minority community.”
The governor also made a few comments about education, saying that during his first term, education policy changed from being “fixated on adults and buildings and equipment” to focusing on serving children.
During this term he will work to transform education from an “…agrarian education system where everyone was stuffed into a classroom which denied creativity and flexibility,” to a 21st Century education system in which kids are excited and challenged.
See “Swearing-In Ceremony of Governor John R. Kasich and Lieutenant Governor Mary Taylor Southern Theatre, Columbus, Ohio Monday, January 12, 2015 at
3) New Recommendations for Testing in Ohio’s Schools: State Superintendent of Public Instruction Richard Ross submitted to Governor Kasich and the members of the 131st General Assembly a report on January 16, 2015 entitled Ohio Testing Report and Recommendations.
Governor Kasich and Ohio lawmakers directed Superintendent Richard Ross in 130-HB487 to prepare a report that would assess the amount of student testing in schools in grades K-12, and make recommendation to reduce the amount of testing.
The Ohio Department of Education evaluated the amount of time and types of assessments administered in Ohio through surveys of districts and community schools; conversations with teachers, administrators, and education stakeholders; and through an analysis of teacher evaluation data and state testing times.
The ODE identified four types of tests that students take each year: teacher tests, district tests, district tests to meet state requirements, such as teacher evaluations or identifying gifted students, and state tests to meet federal requirements in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, also known as the No Child Left Behind Act.
Through this study, the ODE found that on average Ohio students participated in 19.8 hours or 1-3 percent of the school year on grade-level testing. Students in the 10th grade experienced the most number of hours of testing, 28.4 hours, while students in kindergarten experienced the least, 11.3 hours. The study also found that students spend approximately 15 additional hours practicing for tests each year.
The report states that meeting federal requirements accounts for 72 percent of the time students spend on state tests, but the report notes the importance of assessing student learning:
“In summary, testing serves an important purpose for monitoring and improving student learning. However, there are opportunities for improved efficiency in Ohio’s testing system. The action steps to be taken by the department will streamline testing, which will lead to a reduction in testing time for students. The proposed legislative recommendations potentially could reduce student testing time by nearly 20 percent annually, as shown in Appendix 4. An overall limit on state and district testing time provides a structure for policy makers to work within as Ohio continues to refine its public education system.”
The report recommends a reduction in the number of hours of testing by 20 percent through the following:
-Limit the amount of time a student takes state and district tests to 2 percent of the school year and limit the amount of time spent practicing for tests to 1 percent of the school year. The limit would not apply to teacher tests, sample tests, tests for special populations, or for students who choose to take more than three courses with end of course exams.
-Eliminate the use of student learning objective tests as part of the teacher evaluation system for teachers in grades preK-3 and for teachers teaching in non-core subject areas in grades 4-12. The amount of testing time used to measure student learning objectives is 26 percent, which is one of the largest drivers of testing time.
According to the report, “Teachers teaching in grades and subject areas in which student learning objectives are no longer permitted will demonstrate student growth through the expanded use of shared attribution, although at a reduced level overall. In cases where shared attribution isn’t possible, the department will provide guidance on alternative ways of measuring growth. Based on the model created using 2013-2014 teacher evaluation data, eliminating student learning objectives would reduce the average amount of time students spend taking tests by 3.1 hours per grade level.”
-Eliminate the fall third grade reading test, but provide a summer administration of the test for students who need it. This recommendation would reduce the amount of testing time for a third-grade student by 4.75 hours each year.
-Eliminate the state’s requirement that districts give math and writing diagnostic tests to students in first through third grade.
In addition to the recommendations, the Ohio Department of Education will do the following:
-Work with the federal government to advocate for flexibility for Ohio’s testing system. Eliminate double testing students whenever possible.
-Monitor the first-year administration of Ohio’s new state tests, including PARCC (English and math) and AIR (science and social studies) tests, and make any changes necessary to ensure that Ohio’s testing system provides accurate data on student performance in a reasonable way.
-Create models for local schools to increase the efficiency of local testing by finding ways schools may use a single test for multiple purposes.
-Make changes to the new Kindergarten Readiness Assessment in response to teacher concerns about the disruption the current test causes to classroom instruction. The number of questions on the KRA will be reduced by May 1, 2015 for the 2015-16 school year, and the ODE will work on the technology to shorten the reporting time.
-Study the feasibility of using the new state tests to identify gifted students, and report the findings by January 31, 2016.
-Implement and expand the new innovative school district waiver pilot program to develop new and creative ways of assessing students using alternative testing methods.
See “Department of Education Recommends Reduction in Testing” at http://education.ohio.gov/Media/Media-Releases/Department-of-Education-Recommends-Reduction-in-Te#.VLkzBmTFpn8
4) National News
- President Obama Promotes Student Privacy: President Barack Obama outlined on January 12, 2015 in a speech at the Federal Trade Commission steps to safeguard student data in the classroom and beyond. The President will introduced legislation, modeled after a California statute, which addresses issues identified in the White House Big Data and Privacy Review regarding the collection and dissemination of student data, including students’ grades, medical records, test scores, text messages, photos, food purchases, and disciplinary records.
The proposed bill would expand the Family Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), and prevent companies from selling student data to third parties for purposes unrelated to education, and prevent targeted advertising to students based on data collected in school. However, researchers would still be allowed to use student data to improve learning outcomes, and companies would be allowed to use student data to improve their technology and/or products. In addition, the U.S. Department of Education will provide new tools to help teachers use data appropriately to safeguard student privacy.
See “Remarks by the President at the Federal Trade Commission”, January 12, 2015 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/01/12/remarks-president-federal-trade-commission
- Arizona Law Requires Students to Pass a Citizenship Test: The Washington Post reports that Arizona Governor Doug Ducey signed into law on January 15, 2015 The American Civics Act, which requires students, starting with the class of 2017, to pass the U.S. Naturalization Test to earn a high school diploma. The test includes 100 questions about U.S. history and government. Students will have to get 60 out of 100 questions correct in order to pass, and can start taking the test in 8th grade. According to the article, Arizona is the first state to adopt the civics requirement, but The Civics Education Initiative is advocating that all states mandate the testing requirement by September 17, 2017, the 230th anniversary of the U.S. Constitution.
See “Arizona will require high school students to pass citizenship test to graduate. Can you pass?” by Reid Wilson, The Washington Post, January 16, 2015 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2015/01/16/arizona-will-require-high-school-students-to-pass-citizenship-test-to-graduate-can-you-pass/
- Update about the New York Teacher Tenure Court Case: Chalkbeat New York reported on January 14, 2015 that Justice Philip G. Minardo, Supreme Court of the State of New York, Richmond County (Staten Island), heard oral arguments in the Davids v. New York lawsuit about teacher tenure, seniority, and discipline laws. The judge was expected to rule on whether or not the case will go forward, but that decision was delayed.
The lawsuit is similar to the Vergara v. California lawsuit filed in the California Superior Court. The court there found in June 2014, that California’s statutes violated the California Constitution by preventing ineffective teachers to be fired, and violated the equal protection rights of students. The decision has been appealed by California Governor Jerry Brown.
The New York case was filed by Mona Davids, president of the NYC Parents Union and others, and the Partnership for Educational Justice, headed by Campbell Brown, former CNN reporter. The lawsuit alleges that New York state teacher due process laws and tenure, and teacher contracts make it too difficult and costly to fire incompetent teachers, which harms students.
The defendants include the State of New York, the State Board of Regents, the City of New York, the New York City Department of Education. The lawyers for the defendants argued that the plaintiffs failed to show that the courts are the appropriate venue for challenging the law, which could be changed through legislative action.
See “After court arguments, Judge puts off decision in teacher tenure case”, by Brian Charles, Chalkbeat New York, January 14, 2015 at http://ny.chalkbeat.org/2015/01/14/after-court-arguments-judge-puts-off-decision-in-teacher-tenure-case/#.VLdEfyvF-So
- Mississippi Votes to Leave PARCC: Andrew Ujifusa reports for Education Week that the Mississippi State Board of Education voted on January 16, 2015 to drop out of the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) for the 2015-16 school year. The Board will issue a request for proposals on February 2, 2015 to seek competitive multi-year bids through an open and transparent process to develop assessments in English/language arts and math.
Eight states and the District of Columbia remain in the PARCC consortium, including Ohio; seventeen states remain in the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium; eighteen states are developing their own assessments; and seven are undecided.
See “Miss. State Board Votes to Leave PARCC, Seek New Test for Next School Year” by Andrew Ujifusa, Education Week, January 16, 2015 at http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/state_edwatch/2015/01/miss_state_board_votes_to_leave_parcc_seek_new_test_for_next_school_year.html?cmp=ENL-CM-NEWS3
5) Update on the Reauthorization of No Child Left Behind: The debate about the reauthorization of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), also known as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), shifted into high gear last week when Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN), chair of the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee (HELP), released on January 13, 2015 a draft to reauthorize ESEA. Policy makers and stakeholders immediately responded with statements and recommendations of their own to revise the law. The Senate’s HELP committee is expected to begin hearings on the draft, which is entitled “Every Child Ready for College or Career Act of 2015”, on January 21, 2015. See http://www.help.senate.gov/imo/media/AEG15033.pdf
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act was first approved under President Lyndon Johnson in 1965. Its purpose then was to ensure educational opportunities for all students. It has been reauthorized several times, including in 2002 when it became known as the No Child Left Behind Act. The act was up for reauthorization in 2007, but the lack of a bipartisan agreement on the components of the act have delayed action on it. The act includes a number of federal education programs, including Title I, which provides $14.5 billion in funds for the education of low income students.
According to Education Week, the latest reports show bipartisan support in Congress for giving states more flexibility about the annual testing requirements, one of the most controversial components of NCLB. This is a big policy shift, because the current law requires annual tests in grades 3-8 and once in high school in math and language arts, and in science once at each grade level band. The results of those exams are used in decisions about teacher evaluations, turnaround plans for failing schools, student progress, and the status of closing achievement gaps among groups of students.
The draft offered by Senator Alexander is the same as S.1101, the Every Child Ready for College or Career Act of 2013, which Senator Alexander introduced in the 113th Congress. According Senator Alexander, the purpose of the draft is to spur discussion among policy makers, educators, and the public about its key components, including testing, standards, accountability, student achievement, student progress, teacher evaluations, and more. The public can respond to the draft through February 2, 2015 at FixingNCLB@help.senate.gov.
One of the major features of the draft is the new flexibility that states will have regarding testing. One testing option would allow states to test students in grade bands, use portfolios, use formative assessments, competency-based assessments, local assessments, or devise other assessment systems, that would not require U.S. Department of Education approval. A state could also adopt the current assessment requirements, but the draft then allows school districts, with the permission from their state, to choose their own types of assessments.
The following are highlights of other provisions in the draft:
-States that the purpose of the act is to “restore freedom to parents, teachers, principals and other school leaders, States, Governors, and local communities so that they can improve their local public schools.”
-Eliminates the list of the “core” subjects of a comprehensive curriculum. This section lists the arts as a core subject.
-Eliminates Adequate Yearly Progress and makes measuring year to year student growth optional.
-Makes teacher evaluations based on student test scores optional.
-Gives local school districts more options about improving low-performing schools, but states are still required to identify low performing schools.
-Allows about $1,300 per child of Title I dollars to follow students to the public schools of their choice.
-Eliminates language about highly qualified teachers, but teachers would still have to meet state licensing requirements.
-Requires states to adopt standards that prepare students for postsecondary education without remediation. States are required to adopt “challenging standards” in math, language arts, and science, and “any other subjects determined by the state.”
-Allows states to adopt different standards for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
-Specifically states that the secretary of education “shall not have the authority to mandate, direct, control, coerce, or exercise any direction of supervision over any standards.”
-Allows states to create their own accountability systems without the approval of the secretary of education.
-Maintains the requirement that states disaggregate student data so that the progress of groups of students can be followed.
-Maintains the requirement that states report graduation rates.
-Allows states to transfer federal funding among programs.
-Authorizes the Teacher Incentive Fund as a separate program in law
-Eliminates “maintenance of effort”, which requires school districts to maintain spending for programs at certain levels in order to receive federal funds, but maintains “supplement not supplant” provision.
-Eliminates several programs, including Arts in Education; School Improvement Grant (SIG) models; 21st Century Community Learning Centers (after school programs); and Obama Administration Programs including Race to the Top, Investing in Innovation, and Promise Neighborhoods.
See Press Release “Chairman Alexander Announces Plan to Fix No Child Left Behind”, January 13, 2015 at
See “Senator Alexander’s Draft NCLB Bill: Cheat Sheet”, by Alyson Klein, Education Week, January 16, 2015 at
See “Battle Lines Drawn on Annual Testing in ESEA” by Alyson Klein and Lauren Camera, Education Week at http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/01/16/battle-lines-drawn-on-annual-testing-in.html?cmp=ENL-CM-NEWS1
See “Senator Alexander’s ESEA Draft Offers Two Options on Testing” by Lauren Camera and Alyson Klein, Education Week, January 13, 2015 at http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/campaign-k-12/2015/01/alexander_draft_NCLB_offers_lawmake.html
- ESEA Priorities Outlined by Arne Duncan: U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan outlined the Obama Administration’s priorities regarding the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in a speech at Seaton Elementary School in Washington, D.C. on January 12, 2015.
The Secretary said in the speech that Republicans and Democrats should move beyond “the out-of-date, and tired, and prescriptive No Child Left Behind law” and replace it “with a law that recognizes that schools need more support – and more money, more resources – than they receive today.” President Obama’s budget recommendations will include a $2.7 billion increase for ESEA programs, including $1 billion more for Title 1.
The reauthorized law should include access to preschool for children under five; better preparation, support, and resources for teachers; expanded education opportunities for all students; and strongly support education as “…a civil right, a moral imperative, and the best way we can strengthen our nation and attract and retain great jobs that expand the middle class.”
He also emphasized the need to keep the focus on student achievement and closing the achievement gap among groups of students. According to Secretary Duncan, “We are at an educational crossroads in America, with two distinct paths for moving forward. This choice, this crossroads, has profound moral and economic consequences. In making choices for our children’s future, we will decide who we are as a nation.”
Secretary Duncan praised the improvements that have been made in graduation rates, the number of students taking Advanced Placement courses, and the number of students attending college. But, he said that there are still too many children who are not prepared for kindergarten and not prepared for college after graduating from high school, and too many students of color suspended and unable to access higher educational opportunities.
In terms of educational opportunities, Secretary Duncan said that, “I believe education cannot and should not be boiled down just to reading and math. I believe the arts and history, foreign languages, financial literacy, physical education, and after school enrichment are as important as advanced math and science classes. Those are essentials, not luxuries.”
He also said that schools must take action when students fall behind, and all schools should be accountable to parents and the public for student achievement. Annual state assessments aligned to teacher classroom instruction in reading and math in grades 3-8 must be included in ESEA so that parents and the public can keep track of the progress students are making. But he goes on to say, “…we also must do more to ensure that the tests – and time spent in preparation for them – don’t take excessive time away from actual classroom instruction. Great teaching, and not test prep, is always what best engages students, and what leads to higher achievement.” The administration will urge Congress to let states set limits on the amount of time students spend on state and district-wide standardized tests, and include funds to help improve the quality of tests.
Secretary Duncan also made it very clear that the Obama Administration will oppose efforts in Congress to make optional using student progress in teacher evaluations and keeping track of the progress of minority students, students living in poverty, students with disabilities, students learning English, and other groups of students that have struggled in school in the past.
See “America’s Educational Crossroads: Making the Right Choice for Our Children’s Future: Remarks of U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan”, U.S. Department of Education, January 12, 2015 at
- ESEA Priorities Outlined by Senator Patty Murray: Senator Patty Murray, the ranking Democrat on the Senate HELP Committee, outlined priorities for reauthorizing ESEA before the Senate on January 13, 2015. Calling the NCLB “badly broken”, she recommended fixing the bill to ensure that students have access to quality public education programs. She supports annual testing in grades 3-8 and once in high school, but would work to reduce redundant and unnecessary testing; hold schools and states accountable for the progress of all students; invest more in schools with high numbers of children from low-income backgrounds; support teacher development and training; and expand early childhood education programs.
See Press Release “Murray Outlines Priorities to Ensure All Students Have Access to a Quality Education” January 14, 2015 at http://www.help.senate.gov/newsroom/press/release/?id=8626b87a-d97c-4fa7-8f65-3b42bd829c20&groups=Ranking
- Statement from the American Federation of Teachers: The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the Center for American Progress (CAP) released on January 14, 2015 a joint statement announcing a set of shared principles in the areas of accountability, the use of tests, and teacher evaluations, to guide the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
According to the statement, the goal of federal education policy “…should be to ensure that disadvantaged students have access to the educational resources they need in order to be successful and to prepare future generations to compete in a global economy.”
Funding inequities must be addressed and testing must be examined, because too many students are feeling the pressure from the testing, and too much testing is narrowing the curriculum and taking the joy out of learning.
The organizations support annual statewide testing in grades 3-8 and in high school, but say that federal accountability requirements should be based on tests taken once in grade bands for the elementary, middle, and high school, rather than at every grade level 3-8.
The federal accountability requirements should also be based on multiple measures, including high school graduation rates, school quality reviews, climate and safety measures, success of students on college-preparation curricula, and measures of social and emotional learning.
The results of the tests should be used to identify and target interventions. The lowest-performing schools and districts should be required to implement research-based interventions that meet the needs of students and the community.
The organizations also believe that major new investments, at least doubling the $2.4 billion in Title II, should be made to support the teaching profession, and qualifications for teachers should be raised. States should develop monitoring systems to improve the quality of teacher preparation programs; develop teacher career pathways and career ladders; provide more time for teacher planning and collaboration; support high quality clinical residencies; and raise teacher compensation.
To achieve these goals, the organizations believe that “federal policy should be used to address funding inequities, to improve teaching and learning.”
They go on to say, “States and districts should also be held accountable for providing equitable resources and supports to all schools. Our inequitable system of school financing is a disgrace to our nation.”
See “AFT-CAP Joint Statement of Principles on ESEA Reauthorization”, January 2015 at https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/AFT-CAP-Shared-Principles-on-ESEA.pdf
- NEA’s Position on ESEA: Eskelsen Garcia, president of the National Education Association (NEA), issued a statement on January 12, 2015 saying that the NEA supports the original purpose of ESEA to ensure that all students have equal educational opportunities and will work to reduce the emphasis on standardized testing, which has corrupted the quality of the education received by children, especially those in high poverty areas. Furthermore, the NEA supports grade-band testing, expanded extracurricular activities, flexibility for states and districts to use their choice of assessments; and accountability systems that measure more than a single test score, but focus on factors that are “indicative of school and student success, and highlight gaps in equity”.
See “NEA calls for more equal opportunity in No Child Left Behind reauthorization: Our students, especially those most in need, should not have to wait any longer,” by Eskelsen García, NEA, January 12, 2015 at http://www.nea.org/home/61521.htm
- New NEA Reports Released: The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), Jane Chu chairman, released three reports on January 12, 2015 that reveal new findings about participation in the arts and the impact of the arts on the gross domestic product (GDP)
The reports are based on federal data reports and surveys from 2012, including the General Social Survey (GSS); Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, 2002-2012; and Bureau of Economic Analysis satellite account data.
The first report, “When the Going Gets Tough: Barriers and Motivations Affecting Arts Attendance”, examines attitudes, motivations, and barriers affecting participation in arts events at different ages based on the GSS.
Among the report’s findings, nearly 60 percent of respondents with children under age six said lack of time was the greatest single barrier to attending an arts event, and 73 percent cited socializing with family and friends as the top reason for attending an arts event. The report also notes that 28 percent of non-attendees still expressed interest in attending arts exhibits and/or live music, theater, or dance performances.
The second report, “A Decade of Arts Engagement: Findings From the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, 2002-2012”, is based on the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA), which includes the responses of over 37,000 adults.
The survey found a strong correlation between exposure to the arts as children and arts participation as adults. Adults who as children visited museums or attended performances were 3 to 4 times as likely to participate in the arts in later life.
Technology also boosts arts participation and was used by 167 million people in 2012 to view art, or create music or visual art.
The report also notes that 54 percent of those surveyed attended at least one live music, theater, or dance performance, or viewed an art exhibition during the past year.
The third report, “The 2014 Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account (ACPSA): 1998-2012”, found that the arts are a bigger driver of gross domestic product (GDP) than previously estimated.
“In 2012, arts and cultural production contributed more than $698 billion to the U.S. economy, or 4.32 percent to the U.S. Gross Domestic Product. This contribution is more than construction ($586.7B) or transportation and warehousing ($464.1B).”
“4.7 million workers were employed in the production of arts and cultural goods, receiving $334.9 billion in compensation.”
“Arts and cultural spending has a ripple effect on the overall economy, boosting both commodities and jobs. For example, for every 100 jobs created from new demand for the arts, 62 additional jobs are also created.”
The following are the top contributors to arts and cultural gdp in 2012:
-Broadcasting – $121.091 billion
-Motion pictures and video – $95,868 billion
-Publishing – $77,850 billion
-Retail trade – $44,059 billion
-Performing arts and independent artists – $35,413 billion
-Advertising – $29,289 billion.
See “Surprising Findings in Three New NEA Reports on the Arts, NEA at
This update is written weekly by Joan Platz, Research and Knowledge Director for the Ohio Alliance for Arts Education. The purpose of the update is to keep arts education advocates informed about issues dealing with the arts, education, policy, research, and opportunities. The distribution of this information is made possible through the generous support of the Ohio Music Education Association (www.omea-ohio.org), Ohio Art Education Association (www.oaea.org), Ohio Educational Theatre Association (www.ohedta.org); OhioDance (www.ohiodance.org), and the Ohio Alliance for Arts Education (www.oaae.net).