Arts On Line Education Update 09.10.2012

How will your school/district celebrate Arts in Education Week, September 9-15, 2012?

Governor Kasich and Lieutenant Governor Mary Taylor have issued a Proclamation declaring the week of September 9-15, 2012 Arts in Education Week. The Proclamation encourages support for the arts as a core academic subject and as an essential component of a complete and balanced education for all students.

The Ohio Alliance for Arts Education is pleased to announce that supporting the Proclamation are all the major education and arts education organizations in Ohio, including the State Board of Education, the Ohio Department of Education, the Ohio Music Education Association, the Buckeye Association of School Administrators, the Ohio Art Education Association, the Ohio Association of Elementary School Administrators, the Ohio Association for Gifted Children, the Ohio Association of School Business Officials, the Ohio Association of Secondary School Administrators, the Ohio Coalition for Equity and Adequacy of School Funding, OhioDance, the Ohio Education Association, the Ohio Educational Service Center Association, the Ohio Educational Theatre Association, the Ohio Federation of Teachers, the Ohio Congress of Parents and Teachers, the Ohio School Boards Association, and the Ohio School Psychologists Association.

Some of the ways to promote Arts in Education Week include

  • Write a letter to the editor for the local newspaper highlighting the significant impact arts education has on students and your community.
  • Present at a board of education meeting, and highlight the contributions that arts education programs have made to students, the school district, and the community. Present a copy of the Proclamation to your local board of education and request that they endorse it.
  • Ask businesses in your community to display the Proclamation in their windows or information bulletin boards, and encourage them to support the arts in schools.
  • Encourage teachers and school administrators to incorporate Arts in Education Week in school activities the week of September 9th. For example, request that an announcement about Arts in Education Week be made prior to the marching band’s halftime show at the football game, and request that information about Arts in Education Week be included on the school/district website, in school announcements, in school newsletters, and on information boards.
  • Write to elected officials (school board members, city council, Ohio House and Senate members, etc.) requesting that they support an adequate, fair, and stable school funding system that includes sufficient resources to provide quality arts education programs for all students.
  • Invite artists in your community to speak to students about being college and career ready in the arts.

Americans for the Arts will be celebrating Arts in Education Week by hosting a blog salon on ARTSblog. This is a biannual event about arts education topics, and this fall’s theme is the intersection of the arts and the new Common Core State Standards. The blog salon will feature a collection of posts by arts and education leaders, such as Yong Zhao, Richard Kessler, and Amy Johnson. Follow the salon by using the arts education tag on ARTSblog.

Let the OAAE know how you celebrate Arts in Education Week so that we can share your ideas!

To view a copy of the Arts in Education Week Proclamation, please visit

129th Ohio General Assembly: The Ohio House and Senate are scheduled to meet on September 12, 2012 to consider five pension reform bills:

  • SB340 (Niehaus) Ohio Police and Fire Pension Funding
  • SB341 (Niehaus) School Employees Retirement System
  • SB342 (Niehaus) State Teachers Retirement System
  • SB343 (Niehaus) Public Employees Retirement System
  • SB345 (Niehaus/Kearney) State Highway Patrol Retirement System

On September 5, 2012 the House Health and Aging Retirement and Pensions Subcommittee, chaired by Representative Schuring accepted substitute versions of the bills. The subcommittee is scheduled to meet on September 10, 2012 at 11:00 AM in hearing room 121 and approve the bills, setting up a vote on the bills by the full House Health and Aging Committee, chaired by Representative Wachtmann, on September 10, 2012 at 3:00 PM. The bills will then be considered by the Ohio House and Senate.

2012 Election News:

Early Voting Update: The U.S. District Court Southern District of Ohio Eastern Division ordered on August 31, 2012 Ohio Secretary of State Jon Husted to restore in-person early voting on the weekend before the November 6, 2012 election. (Obama for America v. Husted)

Last week Secretary Husted issued an order barring county boards of elections from posting in-person voting hours on the weekend before the November 6, 2012 election, pending a decision in an appeal of the ruling. The appeal was filed by Attorney General Mike DeWine with the U.S. Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals on September 4, 2012. By the end of last week, however, Secretary Husted had rescinded that order after U.S. District Court Judge Peter Economus requested that Secretary Husted appear before the Court to explain why he issued an order that contradicted the ruling. Secretary Husted also filed a motion for a stay of the order. More information about this ruling is available .

Update on the Provisional Ballot Ruling: On September 6, 2012 Ohio Secretary of State Jon Husted and Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine appealed a ruling issued last week by U.S. District Court Judge Algenon Marbley. The ruling ordered Ohio Secretary of State Jon Husted to issue a directive within ten days requiring boards of elections to count provisional ballots that are miscast due to poll worker error or technical mistakes. The appeal was made to the U.S. Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. (Service Employees International Union v. Husted and Northeast Ohio Coalition of the Homeless v. Husted). More information is available.

State Board of Education to Meet
The State Board of Education, Debe Terhar president, will meet on September 10-11, 2012 at the Ohio School for the Deaf, 500 Morse Road, Columbus, OH.

Meeting on Monday, September 10, 2012
The Legislative and Budget Committee, chaired by C. Todd Jones will meet at 8:30 AM to discuss the State Board of Education’s FY14-15 Budget and Legislative Recommendations.

The Executive Committee, chaired by Debe Terhar, will meet at 9:30 AM and discuss the superintendent’s search; discuss the State Board’s Policy and Procedures Manual; and select a voting delegate to the NASBE convention.

At 10:00 AM the full Board will discuss changes to the 2011-2012 Local Report Card and the July Retreat.

Following lunch at 1:00 PM the full Board will receive a presentation regarding the FY14-15 State Board of Education Budget and Legislative Recommendations. The State Board will convene its business meeting at 3:30 PM and move into Executive Session. Following the Executive Session the Achievement, Capacity, and Urban Education committees will meet.

The Achievement Committee, chaired by Angela Thi Bennett, will discuss and approve a Resolution to Adopt a Revised Physical Education and Wellness Report Card Measure; discuss and approve a Resolution of Intent to Adopt Early Learning and Development Standards; discuss proposed amendments to assessment rules and approve a Resolution for Assessments; and discuss the Restraint and Seclusion Policy.

The Capacity Committee, chaired by Tom Gunlock, will discuss standards for Waivers of the Operating Standards pursuant to R.C. 3301.07(O); discuss an update on ORC 3319.228(B)(1) List of States with Inadequate Licensure Standards; and discuss OAC Rule 3301-24-05 Licensure.

The Committee on Urban Education, chaired by Joe Farmer, will discuss planning for future meetings and activities.

Meeting on Tuesday, September 11, 2012
The State Board will continue its meeting on September 11, 2012 at 8:30 AM with a policy review of the Third Grade Reading Guarantee and an overview of setting cut scores for the reading guarantee. The business meeting will follow. The State Board will approve minutes for the July 2012 Retreat and August 20, 2012 Special Meeting; receive public participation on agenda items; receive the report of the Acting Superintendent of Public Instruction; vote on the Report and the Recommendations of the Acting Superintendent of Public Instruction; consider old business and new business; receive public participation on non-agenda items at 1:00 PM; and adjourn.

The following is the Report and Recommendations of the Superintendent of Public Instruction:

#7 Approve a Resolution of Intent to Amend Rule 3301-24-01 of the Administrative Code entitled Glossary/Definitions.

#8 Approve a Resolution of Intent to Amend Rule 3301-24-05 of the Administrative Code entitled Licensure.

#9 Approve a Resolution of Intent to Adopt Birth to Kindergarten Entry Early Learning and Development Standards and their Successors.

#10 Approve a Resolution of Intent to Adopt a Revised Model Anti-Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying (HIB) Policy.

#11 Approve a Resolution to Confirm and Approve the Recommendation of the Hearing Officer and to Approve the Transfer of School District Territory from the Bethel Local School District, Miami County, to the Miami East Local School District, Miami County, pursuant to Section 3311.24 of the Ohio Revised Code.

#12 Approve a Resolution to Confirm and Approve the Recommendation of the Hearing Officer and to Deny the Transfer of School District Territory from the Little Miami Local School District, Warren County, to the Kings Local School District, Warren County, pursuant to Section 3311.24 of the Ohio Revised Code.

#23 Approve a Resolution to Amend Rule 3301-51-08 of the Administrative Code entitled Parentally Placed Nonpublic School Children.

#24 Approve the Willard City School District Board of Education’s Determination of Impractical Transportation of Certain Students Attending St. Paul Elementary and St. Paul High School in Norwalk, OH.

#25 Approve a Resolution to Adopt the State Board of Education’s 2014-2015 Budget Request to the Governor and Members of the General Assembly.

#26 Approve a Motion to Select a State Board of Education Voting Delegate at the NASBE Convention.

#27 Approve a Resolution of Appointment to the Educator Standards Board.

#28 Approve a Resolution to Adopt the Revised Physical Education and Wellness Report Card Measure.

#29 Approve a Resolution to Adopt Cut Scores for the Third Grade Ohio Achievement Assessment in Reading for the Purposes of the Third Grade Reading Guarantee.

#30 Approve a Resolution to Accept the Recommendation of the Hearing Officer and to Revoke the Registration of Rays of Hope as an Autism Scholarship Provider, Pursuant to Section 3310.41 of the Revised Code and Rule 3301-103-06(E) of the Ohio Administrative Code.

Republican Platform for Education: The following is a summary of the 2012 Republican Party platform for education. In order to analyze the platform the summary is organized into several capitalized topics, which are not part of the original document.

Republican Platform: Education: A Chance for Every Child

The Platform strongly supports consumer rights in education choice and states that it is “…the most important driving force for renewing our schools.”

The Platform supports, “School choice—whether through charter schools, open enrollment requests, college lab schools, virtual schools, career and technical education programs, vouchers, or tax credits—is important for all children, especially for families with children trapped in failing schools.”

The Platform also supports an expansion of the “D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program” nationwide.

The Platform states that parents are responsible for the education of their children. Parents should be provided broad education choices at the state and local levels. There should be transparency so that “…parents and the public can discover which schools best serve their pupils”.

The Platform supports “…family literacy programs, which improve the reading, language, and life skills of both parents and children from low-income families”.

It also supports an “English First approach” and opposes divisive programs that limit “students’ ability to advance in American society.”

According to the Platform, higher expectations for all students and higher academic standards are needed. The types of educational programs that should be provided include “… the development of character and financial literacy; periodic rigorous assessments on the fundamentals, especially math, science, reading, history, and geography; renewed focus on the Constitution and the writings of the Founding Fathers, and an accurate account of American history that celebrates the birth of this great nation”.

The Platform supports replacing “family planning” programs for teens with “…abstinence education which teaches abstinence until marriage as the responsible and respected standard of behavior.”

The Platform opposes “school-based clinics that provide referrals, counseling, and related services for abortion and contraception”, and the use of federal money “ mandatory or universal mental health, psychiatric, or socio-emotional screening programs.

The Platform mentions that schools need “strong leadership from locally elected school boards” and supports state and local control of schools.

According to the Platform, “More money alone does not necessarily equal better performance.” The Platform supports “…block grants and the repeal of numerous federal regulations which interfere with State and local control of public schools. The bulk of the federal money through Title I for low-income children and through IDEA for disabled youngsters should follow the students to whatever school they choose so that eligible pupils, through open enrollment, can bring their share of the funding with them.”

The Platform supports accountability on the part of “…administrators, parents and teachers.”

According to the Platform, schools should be provided the flexibility and freedom to innovate and adapt to the special needs of their students. Teachers and administrators are responsible for student performance.

The Platform supports policies and methods that have proven effective such as, “…building on the basics, especially STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering, and math) and phonics; ending social promotions; merit pay for good teachers; classroom discipline; parental involvement; and strong leadership by principals, superintendents, and locally elected school boards” and the proper implementation of technology.

Other types of reforms that are supported include “home schooling and local innovations like single-sex classes, full-day school hours, and year-round schools.”

The platform supports “…the promotion of local career and technical educational programs and entrepreneurial programs that have been supported by leaders in industry and will retrain and retool the American workforce, which is the best in the world.”

The Platform states that, “We applaud America’s great teachers, who should be protected against frivolous litigation and should be able to take reasonable actions to maintain discipline and order in the classroom.”

Legislation should be passed to correct the current law defining a “Highly Qualified Teacher” by credentials, rather than results in the classroom. School districts should be able “…to make use of teaching talent in business, STEM fields, and in the military, especially among our returning veterans. Rigid tenure systems based on the “last in, first out” policy should be replaced with a merit-based approach that can attract fresh talent and dedication to the classroom.”

All personnel who interact with school children should pass background checks and be held to the highest standards of personal conduct.

According to the Platform, “Higher education faces its own challenges, many of which stem from the poor preparation of students before they reach college. One consequence has been the multiplying number of remedial courses for freshmen.”

The Platform calls on State officials to “…ensure that our public colleges and universities be places of learning and the exchange of ideas, not zones of intellectual intolerance favoring the Left.”

“New systems of learning are needed to compete with traditional four-year colleges: expanded community colleges and technical institutions, private training schools, online universities, life-long learning, and work-based learning in the private sector.”

According to the Platform, Federal student aid is on an un-sustainable path. “The federal government should not be in the business of originating student loans; however, it should serve as an insurance guarantor for the private sector as they offer loans to students. Private sector participation in student financing should be welcomed. Any regulation that drives tuition costs higher must be reevaluated to balance its worth against its negative impact on students and their parents.”

Source: 2012 Republican Party Platform pp. 35-37.

Democratic Party Platform for Education

The following is a summary of the 2012 Democratic Party platform for education. In order to analyze the platform the summary is organized into several capitalized topics, which are not part of the original document.

Democratic Platform: An Economy that Out-Educates the World and Offers Greater Access to Higher Education and Technical Training.

The Democratic Platform believes that public education “…is one of our critical democratic institutions” and is committed to ensuring that every child in America has access to a world-class public education. The goal is for the United States to have the world’s highest proportion of college graduates by 2020.

The Platform identifies the public education system as extending from early learning through post-secondary education. Standards for early learning should be improved, and Head Start extended.

The Platform states “We also recognize there is no substitute for a parent’s involvement in their child’s education.”

The Platform supports public school options including magnet schools, charter schools, teacher-led schools, and career academies.

According to the Platform all students should have access to high quality opportunities including those in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, etc. The Platform also states that Democrats are proud of their support for arts funding and education, and are committed to continuing the policies and programs that support the creative arts industry and economy. According to the Platform, “Investment in the arts strengthens our communities and contributes to our nation’s rich cultural heritage.” Support will continue for the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and for programs providing art and music education in primary and secondary schools.

The Platform states that schools need flexibility and resources to improve elementary and secondary education in a way that works best for students.

The Platform supports closing the achievement gap in America’s schools; raising standards so that all students graduate ready for college or careers; turning around low performing schools; and providing public school options for students who are potential dropouts.

According to the Platform, “…Democrats honor our nation’s teachers, who do a heroic job for their students every day. If we want high-quality education for all our kids, we must listen to the people who are on the front lines.”

The Platform notes how the Obama administration has worked to save teaching jobs through the stimulus package, and has worked to prevent more teacher layoffs while attracting and rewarding great teachers.

The Democratic Party supports raising standards for the programs that prepare teachers; recognizing and rewarding good teaching; retaining good teachers; evaluating teachers; giving struggling teachers a chance to succeed; and protecting due process.

Democrats are committed to preparing math and science teachers and training workers with skills for the future, and doubling funding for key basic research agencies.

The Platform supports reforming the student loan program, by removing the banks acting as middlemen, and direct investments to more students; making college affordable for students by doubling Pell Grant scholarships and creating the American Opportunity Tax Credit worth up to $10,000 over four years of college; creating avenues for students to manage their federal student loans; encouraging colleges to keep their costs down; investing in colleges that keep tuition affordable and provide good value; doubling the number of work-study jobs available to students; continuing to ensure that students have access to federal loans with reasonable interest rates; and investing in Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic-Serving Institutions, Tribal Colleges and Universities, Alaska, Hawaiian Native Institutions, Asian American and Pacific Islander Institutions, and other Minority Serving Institutions.

The Platform supports investing in community colleges and supporting additional partnerships between businesses and community colleges to train workers, and investing in science to educate the next generation of scientists and engineers.

According to the Platform “…we will work to make it possible for foreign students earning advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to stay and help create jobs here at home” and allow “deserving young people, who are American in every way but on paper” stay and complete their education.

The Democratic Platform is available.

State Funding for Education Drops: The Center on Budget Policies and Priorities released on September 4, 2012 an analysis of state budget documents for funding primary and secondary education programs in 48 states. (“New School Year Brings More Cuts in State Funding for Schools” by Phil Oliff, Chris Mai, and Michael Leachman, The Center on Budget Policies and Priorities, September 4, 2012.)

According to the analysis, states have made deep cuts in education funding since the start of the recession and those cuts have increased over the last year. “Elementary and high schools are receiving less state funding in the 2012-13 school year than they did last year in 26 states, and in 35 states school funding now stands below 2008 levels — often far below.”

The analysis found that state revenues began to drop in 2007 to the lowest levels in the past 70 years. To balance budgets most states relied on spending cuts rather than a balanced approach using cuts and revenue increases. This strategy led to severe cuts for education programs and local governments.

Currently state funding for schools remains well below pre-recession levels. For example, seventeen states have cut per-student funding by more than 10 percent from 2008 levels. Arizona, Alabama, and Oklahoma have reduced per-pupil funding to K-12 schools by more than 20 percent. The state level of funding in Ohio dropped $152 per student in 2012.

Although the economies of some states are recovering, the report states that “…it will take years before state revenues are able to sustain services like K-12 education at normal levels.” For example, Florida cut the state’s per pupil funding level by $569 over the previous four years, and has only been able to increase per pupil allocations by $273 in 2012.

The analysis did find some states in which education funding increased or remained the same between 2008-2012. Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming have significant oil and gas resources, and did not experience the recession like other states. Maryland, Massachusetts, and Iowa maintained state spending levels for education as a policy decision.

The report also notes the consequences of the steep K-12 spending cuts. School districts with higher concentrations of poverty depend more on state education aid, and lost more state funding when state spending cuts were made.

The spending cuts extended the recession and slowed the recovery, because schools laid-off teachers and administrators, according to federal employment data. The report states, “As of July 2012, local school districts had cut 328,000 jobs nationally compared to 2008.” The job losses have affected the purchasing power of families, thus extending the recession.

The cuts in state spending for education also affected education reform initiatives, such as lengthening the school day; reducing class size; expanding early childhood education; expanding worker training programs, etc.

According to the report, deeper cuts in federal funds for education known as “sequestration” will go into effect if the U.S. Congress and president are not able to agree on a path to reduce the federal budget and lower deficits by January 2013. If sequestration happens state economic conditions will become worse, making it harder for states to restore funding for education.

The report is available.

Blog Explores the Movement to Privatize Education: Anthony Cody in Education Week’s “Living in the Dialog Blog” writes that the battle lines over education reform have become hardened over the role of the marketplace in pushing forward education improvement and innovation. (The Dialog with the Gates Foundation: What Happens When Profits Drive Reform” by Anthony Cody, Education Week, September 3, 2012.)

This is the last blog in a series of dialogues that Mr. Cody has had with Gates Foundation associates discussing the purpose of K-12 education; how poverty affects student learning; teacher evaluations; etc.

In this blog Mr. Cody provides a history of a movement that he believes is underway to undermine public education in order to promote privately run and often for-profit school alternatives, such as charter schools, virtual schools, vouchers, and the for-profit industry that provides support services for K-12 education, valued at $1.3 trillion. Some of the participants in movement include the leaders of the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, the Gates Foundation, Pearson Foundation (Connections Education), the American Legislative Exchange Council, K12, Inc., Cities for Education Entrepreneurship Trust, and groups and businesses led by Rupert Murdoch, Jeb Bush (Foundation for Excellence in Education), and Michelle Rhee to name a few.

According to the author, advocates for privatization have pushed for federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act and Race to the Top, and statewide support for the Common Standards, teacher evaluations based on student test scores, and merit-based teacher compensation. State initiatives to test all students, rate schools based on student performance, and collect and disseminate student data are being used to undermine the public confidence in public schools, in order to open the door for “non-government” alternative educational options, such as charter schools and voucher programs.

The author writes, “From my perspective, the drive for profits is problematic as a motive force for school reform. As we see with the virtual charter sector, there are great incentives to create “efficiencies,” and, lacking significant oversight, there are huge problems with quality. The collusion between the profiteering virtual charters, the testing industry, ALEC and the legislative bodies that are being influenced through legalized bribery taints the entire project.”

He describes the role of the Gates Foundation in this movement as “seminal”. The Gates Foundation gave $2 million to publicize the film “Waiting for Superman”; funds Excellence in Education and the Parent Revolution, an organization that supports parent trigger laws, and Media Bullpen, which rates the media based on its support for vouchers and charters.

The author also notes that the Gates Foundation has supported many education efforts not related to privatizing education, but its emphasis on the Common Core; online testing; standardized testing; evaluating teachers based on student test scores is clearly a priority for the foundation.

The author concludes that the purpose of public education is to ensure that all students, not just the lucky few, have access to excellent educational opportunities. Public schools exist “not only to provide opportunity for individual students, but also as a common resource, in which we invest as community members. We bring together children from all races, religions and walks of life under one roof, to learn together.”

The blog is available.


Update from the Ohio Arts Council (OAC): The September/October 2012 issue of ArtsOhio is available.

This issue includes information about how to nominate an individual or organization for the 2013 Governor’s Awards for the Arts in Ohio; information about how to register for Poetry Out Loud; a calendar of arts events in Ohio for September and October; and information about October, which is National Arts and Humanities Month.

October has been recognized as National Arts and Humanities Month (NAHM) since 1993 and many Ohio communities will celebrate NAHM with special events and activities.

The Ohio Arts Council will host several events to celebrate NAHM including performing, literary, and visual arts activities at the Statehouse and the Ohio Arts Council’s Riffe Gallery.

On Thursday, October 11, 2012 at noon the public is invited to readings by notable Ohio poets and a Poetry Out Loud finalist.

Every Wednesday during October from noon to 1:00 PM visitors to the Statehouse can enjoy a special Art Tour highlighting the People’s Art Collection. The tour includes the governors portrait collection, the artwork in the rotunda, and other paintings and sculptures throughout the Capitol Square complex. Leslie Adams, portrait artist and painter, will talk about her portraits of Governors Bob Taft and Ted Strickland on October 24, 2012 at noon.

On Thursday, October 25, 2012 at noon, Inlet Dance Theatre, one of Ohio’s most exciting contemporary dance companies, will perform. Inlet also conducts artist residencies across the state through our Arts Learning Artist in Residence program.

To find other NAHM events in Ohio please visit

September 2012 Kennedy Center Update: The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts September 2012 Update includes information about professional development opportunities for arts educators; updates about Any Given Child and other Kennedy Center programs; information about Kennedy Center partners, including the Ohio Alliance for Arts Education; and information about grant opportunities.

The following is information included in this issue of the September Update. More information is available.

  • The National Endowment for the Arts’ Office of Research & Analysis recently announced that application guidelines are now available for funding through Research: ArtWorks. This program supports research that investigates the value of the U.S. arts ecosystem and the impact of the arts on other domains of American life. The NEA anticipates awarding up to 25 grants in the range of $10,000 to $30,000. The deadline for application submission is November 6, 2012 for projects that can begin as early as May 1, 2013. More information is available.
  • Grants for teachers of children who learn differently are available from the P. Buckley Moss Foundation. These education grants support projects that integrate the arts into educational programming and support teachers who wish to establish an effective learning tool using the arts in teaching children with learning disabilities and other special needs. Educators may apply for grants of up to $1,000 to support a new or evolving project. The application deadline is September 30, 2012. Applications are available.
  • The September Update also provides information about the recent grants awarded to train arts educators in high poverty schools. The U.S. Department of Education announced the award of more than $1.2 million in grants to school districts in California, Florida, Nevada, and New York under the Arts in Education-Professional Development for Arts Educators program. The funds will support high-quality training programs in elementary and secondary education for music, dance, drama, media arts, or visual arts. The grants are targeted for schools with students from low-income households. More information is available.

About OAAE

It is the mission of the Ohio Alliance for Arts Education to ensure that the arts are an integral part of the education of every Ohioan. We believe that: * All children in school must have quality arts education provided by licensed arts educators * All Ohioans have the right to expect quality arts education * All arts programs must have adequate resources * All arts and cultural organizations and artists have a critical role in arts education Learn more at
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