News from the Statehouse: The Ohio House and Senate are not holding sessions this week, and no committee meetings have been scheduled.
*The Coalition of Rural and Appalachian Schools (CORAS) announced last week the appointment of Mike Shoemaker as its Executive Director. CORAS was established in 1988 in partnership with the Ohio University College of Education, and is composed of 136 school districts, institutions of higher education, and other education agencies in the 32-county region of Ohio designated as Appalachia. Its goal is to advocate for and support the public schools of Appalachia Ohio in the continuous improvement of educational opportunities available to all the region’s children.
*School Funding Advisory Council Recommendations: The Regional Variation Subcommittee of the School Funding Advisory Council, Superintendent of Public Instruction Deborah Delisle chair, presented its recommendations to the Council on September 16, 2010. The following is a summary of those recommendations.
Regional Service System
*Establish an office of regional services and accountability within the ODE to better align regional efforts and coordinate the functions of the ODE, Ohio Board of Regents, and other state agencies.
*Identify in statute the core components of the regional service system. The components should be developed in consultation with ODE and the State Board of Education, and funded through an evidence-based model approach. A uniform system of accountability and reporting should also be developed.
*Structure state policies in all educational areas to promote, incentivize, and reward school districts that collaborate through the regional service system and the regional providers that offer those collaborative services and opportunities.
*Establish processes in law to ensure fair representation of the constituent school districts of ESCs. Fair representation must be reevaluated following transitions such as school district transfers.
Clearer procedures in law on how to respond to the practical issues that arise during transfers and closure will also help facilitate transitions.
*The General Assembly should direct the Ohio Department of Education to conduct an in-depth academic and data-driven study of the benefits of open enrollment; the fiscal impact of open enrollment on school districts; and enrollment policies and waivers.
*If the recommended study is not undertaken, the subcommittee recommends that open enrollment be ended at the conclusion of the
2011-2012 school year.
*Renew state support for school bus purchasing, and promote collaborative purchasing agreements.
*Encourage districts to work together to share services, manage resources, and collaborate on out-of-district transportation. Such efforts must be done within the context of each district’s unique labor contract, which governs labor management practices and conditions.
To read the full report about the recommendations please click here.
News from Washington, D.C.
*NCLB Reforms: According to a press release issued on September 2, 2010, U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy (Vermont) and Senator Russell Feingold (Wisconsin) have introduced two bills that would reform the No Child Left Behind education law. The bills are designed to give states and school districts more flexibility to improve, and also increase resources for states to improve the quality of classroom assessments.
“The Improving Student Testing Act” would encourage states and local districts to develop higher quality assessments, such as computer adaptive tests. “The Flexibility and Innovation in Education Act”
(FIEA) would reform NCLB’s testing mandates and how student growth is measured,and provide a more well-rounded definition of student achievement.
*U.S. Senator Feingold (Wisconsin) also introduced the “Families and Communities Improving Our Schools Act” on September 3, 2010. The proposed law would require schools and school districts that accept federal funds under the School Improvement Grant Program (SIG) to seek input from the public before selecting a particular school improvement model. SIG is a program authorized under the No Child Left Behind Act, and has recently been funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).
*President Obama delivered a “Back-to-School Speech” on September 14, 2010 at the Julia R. Masterman Laboratory and Demonstration School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During the speech the President encouraged students to apply themselves in school and announced the second Commencement Challenge, in which high schools can compete for the President to make the commencement address at their high school.
To read the address please click here.
News from the ODE
*Ohio’s application for the $361 million Education Jobs Program funds was approved by the U.S. Department of Education. The ODE expects to be able to disburse the funds in early October after Controlling Board approval. For more information please click here.
*The Ohio School Boards Association and Ohio School Public Relations Association will present a program entitled “Guerrilla Communication for Your School Levy” on September 21, 2010 in Columbus and September 23, 2010 in Breaksville.
Kim Murnieks, executive director of ODE’s Center for School Options and Finance, will be the keynote speaker and demonstrate a new online tool, the District Fiscal Benchmark Report. Breakout sessions will address how to respond to rumor mills, understand social media techniques, target positive voters, and reach out to dissenters.
*The Ohio Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (Ohio ASCD) will sponsor a conference on October 19, 2010 in Columbus entitled “Promising Practices in Learning and Leading”. ODE Deputy Superintendent Marilyn Troyer will deliver a morning keynote address about the timeline and upcoming activities related to Ohio’s Race to the Top funding. Stan Heffner, associate superintendent of ODE’s Center for Curriculum and Assessment, will address frequently asked questions about education reform during his luncheon keynote presentation, and will invite participants to ask questions about standards revisions, forthcoming new state assessments, and other topics. Breakout sessions will be held on topics including senior projects, differentiated instruction, and pioneering approaches to credit flexibility.
State Board of Education Meeting: The State Board of Education (SBE), Debbie Cain President, met on September 12, 2010 at the Embassy Suites, 2700 Corporate Exchange Drive, Columbus, OH and on September 13 & 14, 2010 at the Ohio School for the Deaf, 500 Morse Road, Columbus, OH.
The Budget Subcommittee, chaired by Dennis Reardon, met on September 12, 2010 and discussed changes that had been made to the Superintendent’s proposed FY12-13 budget. The discussion was led by Kelly Weir, executive director of the ODE Office of Budget and Planning. The subcommittee approved the changes in the Superintendent’s FY12-13 proposed budget, and agreed to recommend them to the full Board for consideration at the Board meeting on September 13, 2010. The full Board will consider adopting the proposed education budget in October 2010.
On Monday, September 13, 2010, the Executive Committee, chaired by President Cain, discussed the National Association of State Boards of Education’s (NASBE) summary of the Ohio State Board of Education’s June 2010 retreat; candidates for NASBE election; and NASBE by-law changes.
A subcommittee, chaired by Board Vice-President Ann Womer Benjamin, was appointed by the State Board of Education (SBE) and is considering how to address the eleven issues that were identified at the June 2010 State Board of Education Retreat.
In other news, according to SBE president Deborah Cain, no information is available about when Governor Strickland will appoint a replacement for State Board of Education member Tracey Smith, who resigned from the Board in July 2010.
Vice-Chair of the Achievement Committee, Tammy O’Brien, reported that there were two main topics of discussion during the committee meeting: revision of Operating Standards and Career Tech Programs.
The State Board of Education approved in June 2010 revisions to several rules included in Operating Standards as a result of House Bill 1 and Senate Bill 318. However, the rules are now being reviewed as part of the five-year rule review process, and the ODE is recommending a minor change in Rule 3301-35-11, Procedures for Evaluation and Intervention. The committee approved the amendment, and recommended that the Board approve an intent to adopt resolution.
The Achievement Committee also received a presentation regarding the work of a consortium of twelve states working to integrate Career Technical Education (CTE) Programs and academic content standards. The consortium is partnering with the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). The consortium is creating a four-course project to integrate academic and career tech standards for several programs of study in grades 9-12. Each participating state has selected a focus to develop a career-technical program area, and Ohio has selected Automated Materials Joining Technology. Once the career-tech programs are developed, Ohio and other consortium members will have access to the programs developed by the other states.
The Capacity Committee, chaired by Rob Hovis and Vice-Chair Kristin McKinley, reported that the committee discussed the following topics:
-Refiling Rules 3301-102-03 and 04 Community school sponsors. No concerns were raised with the refile.
-Proposed Rules 3301-24-18,19,20,21,& 22, Resident Educator License and Alternative Resident Educator Licenses. The committee approved a motion to send the rule change to the full Board with a recommendation to approve.
-Discussed and approved a resolution of intent to adopt proposed standards for School Treasurers and Business Managers. Moved to the full Board for approval.
-Discussed the process for creating a new Adams County Joint Vocational School District. Moved to the full Board.
Board members then shared reports from the committees that they serve on.
-Early Childhood Advisory Council: Kathy Leavenworth and Debbie Cain reported that the Council met on August 19, 2010. The State Board of Education is establishing an Early Childhood Education Subcommittee, and discussed its mission and goals at this Council meeting. The Council also summarized the results of ten Early Childhood Education Forums, which were conducted during August throughout Ohio.
-State Advisory Panel for Exceptional Children: Board members Mary Rose Oakar and Sam Schloemer attended the meeting. The Panel discussed case worker ratios, which are now being implemented, and the strategies included in Ohio’s special education corrective action plan, which was developed to address findings of non-compliance with federal law regarding special education.
The State Board of Education then held a ceremony to recognize the following Ohio Administrators for their leadership and dedication to
-Superintendent of the Year: Gregg Morris, Clark Shawnee Local School District -Secondary Principal of the Year — Brenda Frankart, Liberty-Benton High School, Liberty-Benton Local -Distinguished Principal of the Year — Barbara Werstler, George G.
Dodge Intermediate Schools, Twinsburg City Schools -BASA Betsey Cowles Award — Teresa Purses, Canton Local -Middle School Principal of the Year — Belinda Scott, RB Chamberlin Middle School, Twinsburg City Schools.
PROPOSED FY12-13 SBE BUDGET
Following the lunch break the Board received a presentation by Kelly Weir, director of the ODE’s Office of Budget and Planning, and Christina Siracus, assistant director, ODE Office of Budget and Planning, regarding the Superintendent’s FY12-13 proposed budget.
The State Board of Education is required by statute (ORC 3301.07) to recommend a biennial education budget that reflects the status, needs, and major problems of the public schools in the state to the governor and General Assembly. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, Deb Delisle, submitted a proposed budget to the SBE in July 2010, and included an increase of 4.5 percent in FY12 ($333.2
million) and a 3.4 percent increase in FY13 ($262.6 million), and also recommended several changes regarding the Evidence-Based Model.
Although the School Funding Advisory Council is also developing recommendations regarding the Evidence-Based Model, the proposed ODE education budget does not necessarily reflect the ideas being considered by Council.
The SBE Budget Subcommittee, chaired by Dennis Reardon, met several times over the summer to review the proposed budget. As a result of the discussions, the subcommittee is recommending a flat-plus budget of $7,626,691,584, with a 2.4 percent increase in FY12 ($179.5 million) and $7,785,534,493 in FY13, which is a 2.1 percent increase ($158.8 million). The proposed budget is based on General Revenue Funds and lottery profits, minus the tax relief line items, which are included in the Department of Taxation’s budget.
In addition to the Flat-Plus budget, the ODE Office of Budget and Planning also prepared a budget based on the parameters established by the state’s Office of Budget and Management, executive director J. Pari Sabety. Those parameters were issued for FY12 & 13 in July, and include a flat budget at FY11 levels in both years, and a ninety percent budget based on FY11 in both years.
ODE FLAT-PLUS BUDGET
The proposed Flat-Plus Budget is based on revised average daily attendance numbers (ADM); revised percentages for the number of students in poverty and the number of students with Limited English Proficiency, based on the latest Local Report Card data; and the latest property valuations. This is the first year in recent history in which school districts are experiencing decreases in property values, which can mean in some cases, increases in state aid for some school districts. The following is a summary of the proposed flat budget:
Funding for Traditional Public Schools in the Flat-Plus Budget:
*Phase-in to 100 percent some of the components of the Evidence-based Model, with the exception that non-instructional components will be phased-in according to the HB1 phase-in schedule, which is generally at 40 percent in FY12. Some non-instructional components, such as school guidance counselors, school wellness coordinators, district heath care professionals, and non-instructional aides, were not phased-in at 40 percent in HB 1, but are recommended to be phased-in in this budget proposal.
*Phase-in gifted intervention specialists and professional development for gifted intervention specialists based on the HB 1 schedule at 40 percent. Fund other gifted education components at 100 percent.
*Fund transitional aid guarantees at 90 percent of the prior year.
*Fund the gain cap at 0.75 percent increase over the prior year.
*Fund poverty and Limited English Proficient guarantees at 90 percent of FY11.
Funding for Community Schools in the Flat Plus Budget:
*Provide a 1.5 percent increase (inflationary) over FY11 per pupil amounts in HB1 for each fiscal year.
*Fund transition aid guarantee at 90 percent of prior year on a per pupil basis.
*Fund a gain cap at 0.75 percent increase over prior year on a per pupil basis.
*Joint Vocational School Districts: Provide JVSD with a .75 percent increase over the prior year.
*Special Education: Provide a .75 percent increase per year for Special Education funding components, such as special education transportation; home instruction; parent mentors; preschool special education units; school psychologist intern services.
*Non-public school components: Provide a .75 percent increase for components, including nonpublic auxiliary services; nonpublic postsecondary enrollment; and nonpublic administrative reimbursement.
*Institutional Career-Technical Education: Provide a .75 percent increase per year.
*Educational Services Centers: Updates the ADM for Educational Service Centers, and provides a 99 percent guarantee of prior year funding in FY12, and 98 percent of prior year funding in FY13.
*EdChoice Scholarships: Reflects updated participation in the scholarship for FY11.
*Student Assessments: Recommends continuing to not administer the social studies and writing assessments for pre-high school grades, and reduces research funding. Assessment has undergone a 25 percent cut over the past years.
*GED Testing: Recommends that limits be placed on fee waivers, such as allowing only one per year for an individual, or one waiver over the student’s lifetime.
*Innovative Targeted Program Funding: Increases funding for these programs which support student who are experiencing challenges and under-represented in higher education.
*School Funding Health Care Board: Re-institutes funding for the School Health Care Board until legislative changes can be made.
FLAT and 90 Percent Budgets
The Office of Budget and Management provided direction to state agencies in July 2010 to submit a budget proposal for FY12 & 13 that is flat based on the FY11 budget, and one that is 90 percent of the FY11 levels. A flat education budget would total $7.447 billion in FY12 and $7.447 billion in FY13. A 90 percent budget would total
$6.773 billion in FY12 and $6.773 billion in FY13. The flat and 90 percent budgets are based on the following priorities:
*Funding for districts should be protected as much as possible.
*Within the EBM/Foundation Programs, funding for special need areas should be prioritized over EMB that goes to all districts.
*Any reductions in state aid should be applied equitably and fairly across all educating entities, taking into consideration factors such as local wealth, poverty of students, etc.
*No new programs should be supported (with rare exceptions).
*No earmarks should be included.
*Funding that supports federal maintenance of effort and matching requirements should be protected.
The flat-funded budget impacts significantly alternative education grants, student assessments, early childhood education, and special education, including catastrophic special education and the autism scholarship, and would result in reductions in EBM/foundation of about $111 per student in FY12 and $197 per student in FY13 for districts, community schools, and JVSD.
The OBM 90 percent budget would impact school districts in the following ways:
*Shifts costs to the local level and/or would cause the program to be eliminated at the local level.
*Reduces EBM/foundation for school districts, community schools, and JVSD by $446 per student in FY12 and $531 in FY13 (flat plus budget to the nine percent cut).
*Prohibits new initiatives, such a the Residency program for teachers and Innovative Targeted programs.
*Disrupts the proper management of new work required by HB 1 and RttT.
*Reduces ODE oversight and technical assistance in many program areas, and jeopardizes compliances with federal standards.
*Impacts federal maintenance of effort and matching requirements for special education, Career-Technical programs, and the school lunch match.
*Impacts ODE infrastructure/operations supporting compliance with federal requirements in a number of areas, such as information technology infrastructure, OECN state software support, EMIS operations, fiscal management assistance, assessment contracts and administration, content standards and model curricula, the local report card, and regional school improvement.
In response to a question from a Board member, Deputy Superintendent Marilyn Troyer explained that the ODE staff has undergone a number of budget reductions over the past years. This includes a pay freeze; ten required furloughed days; a reduction in the number of ODE staff by 140, although the responsibilities have remained; reduced travel reimbursements and reimbursements for the use of personal cars; elimination of the ability for ODE staff to convert personal leave for reimbursement; etc.
Early Childhood Subcommittee
The Early Childhood Subcommittee, chaired by Kathy Leavenworth, met for the first time on September 12, 2010. The subcommittee reviewed the scope of its work, discussed the role of the Early Childhood Advisory Council, discussed the early childhood products and services administered by the Ohio Department of Education, and provided an update about the briefings regarding the preK-12 budget conducted by Voices for Ohio’s Children and the ODE during the summer.
The subcommittee welcomed ex-officio members Stephanie Byrd, executive director of the United Way of Greater Cincinnati Success by Six Program, and Amy Swanson, executive director of Voices for Ohio’s Children. They presented an overview of the work of the Early Childhood Advisory Council (ECAC), the early childhood center, and the goals and objectives for early childhood education programs. The Council was created in 2007 as a result of the re-authorization of the federal Head Start Act. The requirements of the ECAC are outlined in the federal Head Start Act, and include a periodic assessment of the needs and availability of services for young children; identification of opportunities and barriers for collaboration; an increase in the number of children who participate in federal and state early childhood programs; and the development of a unified data collection system.
Nineteen states have created early childhood advisory councils, and thirty states are currently developing their plans. The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) provided up to $100 million to develop these councils in the states. Ohio has access to $3.5 million over a three year period to support its Council, and submitted its application for ARRA funds on June 17, 2010. The current lead agency for oversight of the ECAC is the Department of Jobs and Family Services until the Center for Early Childhood Education is functioning. Ohio is expected to receive its federal funding to support the Council in October 2010.
Jane Wiechel, associate superintendent, Center for Students, Families, and Communities, and Sandy Miller, director of the Office of Early Learning and School Readiness, provided the subcommittee with an update about the work of the ODE pertaining to early childhood education. Other presentations will be made by other agencies that provide services and programs for young children at future SBE meetings.
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2010
The Board received two presentations on September 14, 2010: an update about the Education Management Information System (EMIS) from Francis Pompey, Chief Operating Officer and Beth Juillerat, Chief Information Officer, and an update on fiscal monitoring and oversight from Francis Pompey, Chief Operating Officer and Roger Hardin, Assistant Director, Office of Financial Planning and Services.
The first presentation about EMIS provided information about the
following: ODE’s technology partners, including, eTech Ohio, Ohio Education Computer Network, and the Board of Regents; an update on the EMIS redesign project, which is expected to be completed in December 2010; an update on the Statewide Longitudinal Data System and how it ties into Race to the Top; data tool integration; and developing a governance structure in order to avoid duplication and create efficiencies, including a recommendation to create an advisory committee on technology.
The presentation on monitoring and oversight of the fiscal status of schools districts, presented by Roger Hardin, provided information about the laws regarding financial status of school districts, and the procedures and services that the ODE provides school districts to help keep them in good financial status.
The latest five year forecasts, for example, illustrate some of the challenges that school districts are facing in this economy. School districts are required to submit five-year forecasts in October, and are also required to update those forecasts to reflect any changes in their fiscal status. The ODE reviews the forecasts and identifies school districts that might have potential financial problems, such as deficits and low-fund balances (less than 2 percent). School districts are then required to submit to the ODE plans that will outline strategies to address any deficits.
Currently, according to the latest ODE data, eighteen school districts are in fiscal caution; five districts are in fiscal watch, which is determined by the State Auditor; and nine school districts are in fiscal emergency.
Information was also presented about the five-year forecasts for school districts for FY11 and FY12. Thirty-six school districts are projected to have a deficit in FY11 and 182 districts are projecting a deficit in FY12. These numbers are expected to change based on the fiscal plans that school districts implement to address their deficits. David Varda, executive director of the Ohio Association of State Business Officials (OASBO), also provided information about how school districts develop their five-year forecasts.
BUSINESS MEETING OF THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
The State Board of Education convened its business meeting and immediately held an executive session.
Following the executive session the Board received a report from the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The report included an update on Ohio’s Race to the Top grant; an update on 21st Century Learning, including the recognition of Ohio’s Credit Flexibility Policy by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills as a 21t Century Learning best practice; information about Arts in Education Week; an update on the Education Jobs Fund; Ohio’s National Blue Ribbon Schools; performance of Ohio’s students on advanced placement exams; SAT scores for the class of 2010; a project about closing the achievement gap with Quaglia Institute; and an update on the 2009-2010 State Report Card results.
The Board then took action on eight-teen personnel items and other resolutions included in the report and recommendations of the Superintendent of Public Instruction; considered old business and new business; accepted public participation on non-agenda items; and adjourned. The next State Board of Education Meeting will be held on October 11-12, 2010.
The following are the actions of the State Board of Education regarding the report and recommendations of the Superintendent of Public Instruction at the September Board meeting:
-Approved a resolution for an intent to adopt amended Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) Rule 3301-35-11, Procedures for Evaluation and Intervention.
-Approved a resolution for an intent to rescind OAC Rule 3301-38-01, transfer of a region within the Educational Regional Service System.
-Approved a resolution to refile Rules 3301-102-03 and 04 Community school sponsors.
-Approved a resolution of intent to adopt Ohio Standards for School Treasurers and Business Managers.
-Approved a resolution of intent to consider the proposed transfer of school district territory from the Columbus City school District, Franklin County, to the Westerville City School District, Franklin County, pursuant to section 3311.24 of the Ohio Revised Code.
-Approved a resolution of intent to amend section 3.1 of the Anti-Harassment, Anti-Intimidation, or Anti-Bullying Model Policy.
-Approved a resolution to adopt OAC Rules 3301-2-14 to 3301-2-18, Confidential Personal Information.
-Approved a resolution to amend OAC Rule 3301-24-11, Alternative Principal License.
-Approved a resolution to adopt OAC Rules 3301-24-16 and 3301-24-17, senior professional educator license and lead professional educator license, and to amend rule 3301-24-08, professional or associate license renewal.
-Approved a resolution to amend OAC Rule 3301-37-01, definitions.
-Approved a resolution to appoint Kathy Goins to the Educator Standards Board.
-Approved a resolution to employ Michael Sawyers as assistant superintendent to oversee the Race to the Top grant.
-Approved a resolution to employ Adrian Allison as associate superintendent for the Center for Education Reform and Strategic Initiatives.
-Approved a resolution to employ Kathleen Madden as the Director of the Office of Community Schools.
-Approved a resolution to commend Superintendent Delisle and Deputy Superintendent Marilyn Troyer for their efforts regarding the Race to the Top Grant application.
More on Arts in Education Week: Superintendent of Public Instruction for Ohio’s schools, Deborah Delisle, included news about Arts in Education Week during her report to the State Board of Education on September 13, 2010. The following is an excerpt of her remarks:
“As we continue to discuss policy issues and engage in work to provide all students with the 21st Century educational opportunities, the arts continue to be a valued part of Ohio’s education system, and I think that is one thing and a point worth mentioning for the Board as we continue on with our work. I think that the arts community is well aware that we support the arts, but how we truly lift that up and integrate it and establish it as an equal priority with other academic areas is really vital. And I happen to be a firm believer that what we offer to our children tells them what we value. And so therefore I really do believe that if we offer our children arts programs and participation in arts opportunities it tells them that we value that, and to me it helps to be a definer of our own humanity as well as our place in society.”
More on Arts in Education Week: An article published on September 16, 2010 in The News-Herald entitled “Young Thespians: Three cheers for Arts in Education Week” by Steve Couch, reminds us during this election year the multiple ways in which an education in the arts contributes to lives and communities.
According to the article, the arts should be supported by both Democrats and Republicans, because, “…the arts just make better citizens.” The article recognizes arts teachers, the Ohio Alliance for Arts Education, and groups and volunteers that promote arts education in our schools.
The article also includes information about how to support Aaron Arnold, a thespian student at Ashland University, who is competing for a guest appearance in “Mad Men” through an online contest.
To read the article please click here.
California Bill Reduces Arts Requirement: An article in the September 13, 2010 Sacramento Bee entitled California Bill Would ease arts requirement in high schools by Edward Ortiz, provides an update on recent legislation approved by California lawmakers. Assembly Bill 2446 (Furutani) increases the number of electives students can take to fulfill their graduation requirements, including career technical education courses. The bill will go into effect in the 2010-11 school year. According to the article, some students in the future might graduate without taking the arts and foreign languages, which are now included among several electives. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has until September 30, to sign or veto the bill. The article.
Oklahoma Art Teacher Develops On-line Curriculum: An article in NewsOK published on September 11, 2010 entitled “Crescent teacher surfs to Oklahoma’s Top 12 of year” by Tricia Pemberton, features Kristi Lovett, a state Teacher of the Year finalist and art teacher in Crescent High School, Oklahoma. Ms. Lovett has created an online curriculum for her students using a free internet service called Moodle. Students can check daily lessons, take quizzes, link to a webpage, download podcasts, etc. Students who have completed assignments can move ahead, while those who have been absent can keep up with the work. All students have a MAC computer provided by the school. Although instruction and research is provided online, students use traditional media to create art in class. The article.